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GLOSSARY OF TERMS PROVIDED BY
JAN’S & CO. FINE FRENCH ANTIQUES, INC
Acanthus: A leaf used in classical ornament, particularly on Corinthian capitals (the tops of corinthian columns ); frequently found on furniture as carved decoration or cast bronze ornament, particularly from the French, Louis XVI period or style.
Alabaster: A fine often translucent soft veiny marble-like stone found in different precious colors like white, beige, caramel, purple and ruby amogst others. Alabaster has been used for centuries for carvings of decorative sculptures. In the later part of the 19th century and all they way through the mid-20th century, alabaster was used as a decorative element in chandeliers.
Antique: Most countries, including the United States, recognize any item that is at least 100 years old as an antique. Some European countries recognize an item as an antique if it is at least 70 years old. Antique items as well as art-work are mostly exempt from import duties.
Armoire: Better know as a wardrobe.
Art-Deco: Art Deco, popular originally in the 1920s and 30s, took its name from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, an exhibition held in Paris in 1925. Art Deco turned mundane objects into graceful, sensual works of art, with a nod towards the opulent and extreme. Art Deco sought to build upon the elements of Modern Art movements by focusing on the principal object and removing the extraneous elements found in the Victorian era and in Art Nouveau. The concept of “form following function” and the technological advances of the early 20th century played a very important role in defining the direction of Art Deco.
Art-Nouveau: Art Nouveau is the French/Belgian name of an art movement in reaction to the academical schools at the end of the XIXth century (1894-1914). In different countries, "Art Nouveau" had its own identity and sometimes artists at that time were opposed to eachother. In fact, beyond these "oppositions" between countries or even artists, we can find retrospectively numerous common points in each movement. Generally speaking "Art Nouveau" means all the avant-garde movements during the period 1894-1914 in reaction to the academical and historical point of view.
Aubusson: A woven needlepoint-like tapestry used for upholstery of seat furniture as well as wall decoration. Usually made in silk with designs of historical scenes as well as stories in series and floral arrangements, manufactured for centuries by the Aubusson Company established in 1664 in Aubusson, France whom is known for their high quality and design and fine attention to detail.
Baccarat: The Baccarat crystal company, known for it’s high quality and design, was started in 1764. The great French crystal factories of Baccarat (1764) and Saint Louis (1586) were both placed under the protection of his patron saint by Louis XV in the 1760's. Within the next century their cut crystal was among the finest made.
In 1841 Francois-Eugene de Fontenay discovered that the addition of Nickel Oxide in the glass manufacturing process produced perfectly clear glass. Full lead crystal ("invented" in France in 1781 by Saint Louis) must contain at least 24% lead oxide which gives it brilliance, weight and clarity. Quality is determined by the method (hand or machine), detail of design and finish (cut, etched, engraved). It can be decorated with color by adding oxides or minerals, paint (applied by hand and re-fired), silk screening (ceramic paint), frost (sandblasting, acid), and hand cutting (vs. molded design). Cutting produces grooves with sharp angles that increase light-reflecting surfaces adding sparkle. Baccarat crystal pieces and chandeliers are some of the most desirable and sought after pieces in the world.
Barbedienne, Ferdinand (French, 1810-1892): Highly important and prolific bronze founder of furniture mounts and more commonly, bronze sculpture including figures, animals, urns, clocks and candelabra. His signature Varied from hand written capitals to stamp in capitals, usually “F. BARBEDIENNE, FONDEUR” or “BARBEDIENNE PARIS”.
Bergère: Tipically an armchair with padded or upholstered back and sides.Known for being very confortable well padded antique armchairs.
Beurdeley, Alfred Emmanuel Louis (French, 1847-1919): Work at first with his father in Paris and eventually succeeded him. He kept the shop at rue Louis-Le-Grand and had worked at Nos. 20 – 24 rue Dautancourt. The business continued in its traditional style with very few variations, until it was closed in 1895 and the remaining contents of the company were sold at the Galerie Geroges Petit. Beurdeley exhibited at the 1878 Exhibition.
Bevel: The polished edge of a glass or mirror ending in an angle as a decorative frame Bibliotheque: A side cabinet with shelves to store books.
Bisque (Biscuit): Unglazed porcelain or pottery commonly used for Neo-Classical sculptures and decorative items since the middle of the 18th century.
Blackamoors: The first blackamoors were created in Venice in the late 17th century. Later, during the mid 1800s, Venetian artists carved some of the most impressive and graceful examples known, much to the delight of wealthy European families whose demand for fine art and furnishings seemed insatiable. Blackamoor figures ranged from monumental, life-size figures serving as torcheres to diminutive table pedestals.
Bohnheur du Jour: A lady’s small writing desk or secretary with drawers above a flat writing surface in the form of a flap.
Boulle: Decorative type of marquetry in which tortoiseshell, brass, copper and tin were cut and pierced into elaborate floral or curving designs. Originally a 10th century Italian process, Boulle marquety developed in 17th century France and was perfected by Andre-Charles Boulle (1642-1732). Many Boulle style pieces were reproduced during the reign of Napoleon III (1852-1871) utilizing the same techniques and materials as the original pieces by Boulle.
Bronze Doré: Gilt-bronze fused by process of firing bronze mixed in with mercury also known as ormolu or mercurial gilding.
Buffet: Glazed or paneled meuble d’appui ususally a server with storage compartments, larger and taller than a commode that is commonly used in dining rooms for food display and serving. Most French buffets have marble tops.
Bureau Plat: Better know as a flat-top desk with four legs often with trestle supports and three to five drawers.
Bureau à Cylindre: A cylinder “Roll-Top-Like” desk.
Cabriolé: Sinuous, double-curved form used in legs (and feet). The upper portion curving outward and the lower portion curving inward in a gentle S shape. The cabriolé leg is especially characteristic of the Louis XV style.
Canapé: A Settee or love seat.
Carrier-Belleuse (1824-1887): An important French sculptor from Paris known for his high quality sculptures, some in silver plated finishes as well as Cloisonné applications amongst others. His pieces are very desirable highly sought after.
Cassolettes: A vase, usually gilt-bronze, with a pierced lid for burning perfume pastilles made in France from the 17th century on. Some examples often have a cover which reverses to form a candlestick.
Chaise: Chair, dining or side chair.
Chenets: Ornamental decorative pieces, usually made out of bronze or iron, which are used to decorate the lower front of the fireplace.
Chiffonnier: A tall chest, usually with between six and seven drawers.
Chinoiserie: A French word also used by English speakers, for any aspect of Chinese influence on the arts and crafts of Europe, whether produced by Chinese artists, by Europeans, or by others. This term is generally reserved for objects made in the late 17th and throughout the 18th centuries, however the chinoiserie style pieces were very popular in Europe in the late 19 th century through the early 20 th .
Christofle: An highly important French Silversmith established in Paris. He often added fine silver and cloisonné works to furniture pieces. Known for high quality work and fine detailed chasing.
Cloisonné: A type of decoration overlaid on bronze in which compartments separated by thin strips of metal are filled with powdered glass prior to firing to create a shinny colorful enamel.
Commode: A chest of drawers.
Commode à Deux Vantaux: Chest with two cupboard doors often below one longer drawer.
Console: A side table that is commonly placed against a wall or behind a sofa.
Cruet: A cruet is a small bottle used for oils, vinegar and other condiments. Its earliest use was ecclesiastical for wine, oil and water. A few medieval examples exist today. In the late 17th century, cruets were used domestically and were made of glass imported from Italy and adorned with silver or silver-plated mounts
Crystal: Fine, high-quality glass containing lead oxide invented in 17th century England. The lead oxide is attributed to providing the glass with extraordinary qualities of brilliance, sound and a suitable texture for cutting or engraving. Some of the finest crystal ever made is from Baccarat in France and St.Louis France.
Cut-Glass: Any glass whose surface has been cut into facets, grooves and depressions aided by a large, rotating wheel. Wheel cutting glass decoration was developed in the 8th century BC, but the technique of faceting wasn't perfected until the 18th century in England. Although cutting glass is a costly and difficult process, the brilliant effects are extraordinary!
Dasson, Henry: 106 rue Vieille-du-Temple. (1825-1896) Important furniture maker using the very finest ormolu mounts with high quality mercurial gilding. Specialized in copies of eighteenth century models, manly in the Louis XVI style. Exhibited Louis XV, XVI pieces of his own modified eighteenth century design at the 1878 Paris Exhibition. Dasson closed down his business in 1894.
Demi-Lune: A type of crescent-shaped table or commode, commonly placed against the wall. Sometimes referred to as “half moon.”
Durand, Prosper Guillaume: The son of a very important 19 th century furniture maker, Louis. He was made 'ebeniste du roi' (Cabinet maker to the King) in 1839 and exhibited at Industrial Products Exhibitions in 1834,1839, and 1844, as well as the Paris Exhibition of 1855.
Ebéniste: French term meaning “cabinet maker”.
Ebony: The name given to several different woods that are very dark in color, sometimes dark brown or green to black in color.
Ebonized: The name given to a wood finish that is black or very dark in color.
Enamel: A painted porcelain decoration in vitreous colors that fuse to the glazed surface during low temperature kiln firing. Enamel sinks deeply into soft-paste porcelain but is not absorbed by hard-paste porcelain.
Escalier de Cristal: High quality cabinet maker, he established his shop in Mme. Desaraud c.1847 and continued under various names until 1923. His specialty was furniture and objets d’art copied from 18 th century originals. Stamp: Escalier de Crystal.
Escutcheon: An ornament plate that surrounds a keyhole.
Fabergé: Extraordinary jeweled works of art by Peter Carl Faberge, legendary jeweler to the Czars of Russia.
Faience: A French term for glazed earthenware such as Quimper.
Fauteuil: An open sided armchair.
Gallé, Emile (1846-1904): Highly important art-nouveau designer, glassmaker, potter and cabinetmaker, a major influence on the interpretation of plants and foliage forms into art. Galle's design interests reflected the contemporary taste for botany and entomology, and his techniques were innovative and quite productive. In 1874, Galle established his own glass shop in Nancy creating pieces that amazed the public at several Exposition Universelles in Paris. He introduced his glasswares in 1878 and his complex marquetry furniture pieces in 1889. Galle's talent was widely recognized and he was elected to the prestigious Legion d'honneur in 1900.
Guéridon: A small or mid-size round occasional side table usually with marble top.
Gilded: The decoration of an object with a thin layer of gold, gold leaf or gold foil.
Gilt-Bronze: Cast-Bronze that has been dipped in gold.
Glazed: A shiny, glassy surface coating that also seals porous bodies of porcelain and pottery. Glazes can be translucent, opaque or colored. Lead and salt glazes are applied to pottery and soft-paste porcelain, feldspathic glazes to hard-paste porcelain.
Grohé, Guillaume: Grohé was of German origin and established his first workshop with his brother Jean-Michel in Paris in 1827. In 1829 they opened an enterprize at 107, rue de Grennelle, which specialized in making and selling furniture and objets d'art of extraordinary quality. The business grew quickly bringing them terrific success and financial rewards. Their work became amongst the best the best and most sought after in Paris in the 19th century. The firm exhibited regularly at a series of International exhibitions, which started in 1851. Perhaps their most celebrated commission was to refurnish the Imperial apartments in the Louvre, for Napoleon III and Princess Eugenie. Queen Victoria and Louis-Philippe also purchased many pieces of furniture from the firm that are currently at Buckingham Palace. A Contemporary commentary bears witness to the popularity the firm enjoyed, "la prépondérance du goût français dans l'ameublement de luxe et les modèles que son beau talent a crées assurent pour longtemps à notre pays cette glorieuse suprematie artistique". Translation: "the preponderance of the French taste in the furnishing of luxury and the models that its beautiful talent create will ensure for a long time our country's glorious artistic supremacy"
Inlay: Form of decoration used in furniture and ceramics, inlay is when part of a surface is removed and replaced with a contrasting material. When the inlay is laid in the form of a decorative scene is known as Marquetry., When of inlaid design is shaped in the form of symmetrical patterns it is known as Parquetry.
Jardiniére: A plant or flower container, also known as a planter.
Jan's & Co. Fine French Antiques, Inc.: "The Best Kept Secret in The Antique Trade"
KPM Porcelain Plaques: Also know as Berlin porcelain are know for their high quality fired porcelain glazed paintings and a very sought after. Wagner is one of the most know KPM porcelain decorators.
Krieger, Antoine: A major manufacturer cabinetmaker during the second half of the 19 th century. The company had changes its name several times by 1880, latter becoming Damon et Cie. Exhibited various types of furniture in 1852 and 1855, making copies of 18 th century furniture, also modern interpretations of earlier styles. Some of his piece bear a paper label, others signed with his surname of metal work or hammered in.
Lexcellent, E.: Exhibited in 1867. He was a maker and retailer of high quality expensive pieces in all styles. Stamps: ‘Lexcellent Paris” in stencil. Also “Lexcellent, rue Bruguet à Paris (from 1867 on).
Linke, François (1855-1946): Considered the finest French cabinet maker of the late 19th and early 20th century. By 1875, Linke who was born in Pankraz Bohemia, had arrived in Paris and established an independent workshop. His early works were mainly copies of important eighteenth century models. Linke received major attention at the Paris Exposition Universelle when he presented his totally new style, of Rococo with the addition of the new ‘art nouveau’ fluidity. He was awarded the gold medal for his extraordinary Grand Bureau. Linke also exhibited at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair, Liege in Belgium, and the Franco-British exhibition in London in 1908. His work has long been admired for its exceptional quality and innovative interpretation of the Louis XV and Art Nouveau styles. Stamp: Engraved signature: “F.Linke”, “FL” , “LINKE”.
For additional information and reference about François Linke, we recommend the book:
Malachite: An opaque green mineral with very pronounced and often concentric banding. It's surface is hard enough to be polished and malachite has been used for beads, cabochons, decorative items and pietre dure. The use of Malachite was very common in furniture and decorative pieces in 18 th and 19 th century Imperial Russia.
Meissen: Manufacturers of true porcelain whose wares remain unrivaled in terms of innovation and beauty. Meissen is the name of the small town in which alchemist Johann Friedrich Bottger was imprisoned by the King of Saxony where he remained for several years until 1710 when he finally discovered a formula for true (hard-paste) porcelain.
Meuble d’Apui: Side cabinet (Often blind fronted) that is usually leaned against the wall, its back unfinished.
Millet, Maison: Founded in 1853 by T. Millet and continued doing business until 1918. Known for their fine quality copies of 18th century models. Awarded a gold medal in the 1889 Exposition.
Moreau, Hippolyte Francois (1832-1927): First exhibited his works in 1859. The best of his works were of young woman and charming full figures of children.
Ormolu: Derived from French for ground gold, the term refers to gilded bronze or brass mounts. (See gilt-bronze).
Pate-Sur-Pate: A type of 19th century porcelain featuring low-relief designs carved in slip and applied to a contrasting body, usually in foliage designs.
Pietre-Dure: An Italian phrase which means "hard stones," pietre dure is often used to describe sculptural or decorative use of hard stones. This technique was used to decorate furniture, cameos, vases and decorative panels.
Plafonier: French term to describe a lighting fixture that attaches directly flush to the ceiling.
Polychromed: Decoration of furniture or sculpture using three or more bright colors and finishes.
Porcelain: Translucent white ceramic body made from kaolin and petuntse (hard-paste) or another ingredient that induces translucency (soft-paste) fired at high temperatures.
Putti or Putto: Commonly used to describe decorative motifs of cupids, cherubs or children in furniture, paintings or sculpture.
Relief: Decoration that protrudes from the surface.
Rococo: A style of mid-18th century decoration, with asymmetric ornament and generous use of scrolls, flowers or acanthus.
Rosewood: Prized for its exotic and beautifully figured appearance, rosewood was a favorite among upscale cabinet makers of the 18th and 19th centuries. Unlike more common woods, rosewood is exceptionally dense, rich in color and very receptive to a high polish. Hailing from tropical forests of India and Brazil, rosewood got its name not from its appearance, but from the aroma of the freshly cut trees. Neo-classical furniture makers like Thomas Chippendale preferred rosewood to any other variety for his incredible furnishings. Brazilian rosewood was the preferred choice of 19th-century furniture makers as well. Today, rosewood pieces are highly sought after by antique connoisseurs.
Satinwood: Pale in color and silky in appearance, satinwood became increasingly popular in Britain during the 1770s, replacing mahogany as the wood of choice for smaller pieces of furniture. A brilliant yellow wood with a high lustre, stainwood often has a rippled or quilted feature from which its name is derived. Typically, satinwood is used as a veneer and it remained popular in England throughout the late 18th and 19th centuries.
Schmidt, Frederick: Although not as well known as some other nineteenth century furniture makers, he produced pieces of furniture of outstanding quality and design. Schmidt received gold medals at both the 1878 and 1889 Paris Expositions Universelles.
Sconce(s): Wall light(s).
Secretary: A desk with drawers, doors or cupboard above flat surface.
Serpentine: Furniture decoration shaped like an s-curve front and or sides
Shagreen: A leather created from various species of sharks, rays and dogfish, particularly the stingray. This nodule-laden leather was commonly used during the 18th and 19th centuries to add decorative features to items such as jewelry boxes, needle cases, sword handles and opera glasses.
Sormani, Paul (1817-1877): Born in Venice, Paul Sormani set up in Paris in the middle of the 19th century. He specialized in creating furniture and works of art and was known for his high quality reproductions of Louis XV and XVI furniture with finely chased gilt-bronze mounts as well as Boulle style pieces. Sormani usually engraved the lock-plate of some of his pieces, the bronze castings bear the intials "PS" on the reverse.
He exhibited at many Universal Exhibitions, like in Paris in 1855, where he was awarded a first class medal, in London in 1862 where he received another medal and yet again in Paris in 1867.
Everyone agreed that his creations revealed the highest standards of quality; during the 1867 Universal Exhibition the catalog described his work as follows: « Toute sa production révèle une qualité d’exécution de tout première ordre ».
In 1867, he moved to 10. rue Charlot, where he met a great success until his death in 1877. His wife and son took over the business and later moved it to 134, Boulevard Haussmaun. From this date onwards pieces are normally signed “Veuve Sormani et Fils”
Storr, Paul:Paul Storr (English, 1771-1844) - The most celebrated and prolific silversmith of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Storr captured the attention of the world's aristocracy particularly the Prince of Wales, the future King George IV. His works graced palaces and mansions all over Europe.
Tahan, Alphonse: A major maker of small items of furniture and cabinet maker to Napoleon III. He made a variety of items, using most techniques in common usage, including pieces of cast bronze to simulate bamboo. Stamp: Usually “Tahan, Fournisseur de l’Empereur”, “Tahan Ft.”, Tahan A Paris”. The business was continued by his son, Jean Pierre. Exhibited work in an ornate naturalist style in Paris in 1855.
Tapestry: A heavy hand-woven fabric panel, often used as a wall decoration. Aubusson weavers are renowned for their fine tapestries. (See Aubusson)
Tortoiseshell: Tortoiseshell are removed from sea tortoises, an endangered specie, it’s import or export is currently regulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is limited only to pieces that are antique. Often used as an inlay or a decorative overlay on wood surfaces, tortoiseshell is a mottled, nutty brown or red shell material with a spotted, striped, or sometimes even speckled pattern. (See Boulle)
Trumeau: French term for pier-glass. In the Louis XV period it was traditionally decorated with a painted canvas that was set in the frame above the mirror.
Vernis Martin Style: In the early 18th century, the Vernis Martin brothers obtained patent for French imitation of oriental lacquer finishes and decorations applied to furniture. Term denotes pictorial lacquer applied in numerous successive coats on pieces of furniture, usually with panels of hand painted and decorated 18 th century romantic and or courting scenes. Vernis Martin Style pieces were reproduced throughout the 19 th and early 20 th century by some of the most prestigious French and Continental cabinet makers like Linke and Sormani.
Viardot, C.: A maker of distinctive type of chinoiserie furniture in a personal style but also made traditional reprodiction pieces. Much of his work is in the United States and he may well have had a shop there. He exhibited between 1851 and 1900. Stamp: “C.Viardot”
Vitrine: A display cabinet, showcase piece.
Zebrawood: An orange to dark brown wood with variegated stripes and a straight, fine grain. Used for high-quality veneers and available only in small quantities.
Zwiener, Joseph Emmanuel: Born in Herdon, Germany, in 1849, Joseph Emmanuel Zwiener followed the tradition of some of the best ébnistes of the nineteenth century. He moved to Paris establishing a workshop at 12, rue de la Roquette, between 1880 and 1895. He produced a wide array of the very finest furniture, modelling in his own interpretations of the eighteenth century Louis XV Rococo style, veneered with the highest and finest quality marquetry and 'Vernis Martin' panels. Exhibiting at the Exposition Universelle, Paris, in 1889, Zwiener was awarded a gold medal for what the jury reported as 'dè ses dèbuts à une Exposition Universelle, [il] s'est mi au premier rang par la richesse, la hardinesse, et le fini de ses meubles incrustés de bronze et fort habilment marquetés.'
A Group of furniture by Zwiener commissioned by Freidrich Wilhelm II of Prussia and exhibited at the Exposition Universelle, Paris in 1900, was sold at Sotheby's New York June 29th, 1989, lot 270-275.
Zwiener was closely associated with François Linke, and the two houses produced work which, at first glance, is remarkably similar and with occasionally identical mounts. The similarities are made more likely by the fact that the brilliant sculptor, Léon Messagé, worked initially for Zwiener and subsequently, upon Zwiener's departure for Berlin to work on furniture commissioned by Freidrich Wilhelm II , he was employed in the workshop of François Linke. It appears that Zwiener, unlike Linke, did not sign all his work, although some stamped pieces with his name and/or his "Z" initial are documented. There is some uncertainty between the recorded stamp E. Zwiener and the work of a Julius Zwiener, a Berlin cabinetmaker who made furniture in a very similar style, most notably for the above mentioned Freidrich Wilhelm II. Research suggests however, that the German born Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener, based in Paris from 1880-1895 and Julius Zwiener, recorded in Berlin after 1895, are probably one and the same. Since the eighteenth century, it had been a common practice for foreign cabinetmakers to gallicise their names whenever they worked in France. His use of identical mounts as Linke, Zwiener's work is indicative of Léon Messagé influence on both.
For over thirty two years three decades Jan's & Company Fine French Antiques has been importing 18th, 19th and early 20th century European furnishings, fine art and decorative items for discriminating antique dealers, interior designers and collectors throughout the world. Our 24,000 square foot showrooms in Los Angeles, California are filled with furnishings acquired from some of Europe's most prestigious residences. Whether you are looking for an Empire Dining Room Suite, Baccarat Chandeliers, Belle Epoque Furnishings, Marble Sculptures, European Paintings, Fine Porcelain or Silver, a trip to Jan's & Company Fine French Antiques will be worth your while. Copyright © 1996 ~ 2012 - Jan's & Company Fine French Antiques, Inc. All Rights Reserved DISCLOSURE: The /images, logo, design, text, information and all material displayed on this site are protected by U.S. and international copyright laws and may not be printed, saved or reproduced except for personal use only. 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